Recent Journal Articles
"Is Timing Everything? Disability Onset of Youth and Their Outcomes as Young Adults." David R. Mann and Todd C. Honeycutt. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, April 2013 (subscription required). This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine how employment and degree completion outcomes for young adults vary by the timing of disability onset during childhood and adolescence. The authors find people with disabilities whose conditions persist into adulthood have poorer employment and education outcomes than those without disabilities. In addition, employment and education outcomes are poorest for young adults with psychiatric and intellectual impairments.
"The Disability System and Programs to Promote Employment for People with Disabilities." David Wittenburg, David R. Mann, and Allison Thompkins. IZA Journal of Labor Policy, April 2013. This paper examines employment-focused interventions in the U.S. disability system. The review illustrates the challenges of developing and implementing these types of initiatives, despite substantial policy interest. Findings indicate that none of the demonstrations has the potential to lead to substantial caseload reductions that could reverse program growth. However, they can inform future designs and point to the importance of customizing supports to very well-defined target populations.
"The Effects of Health Care Benefits on Health Care Use and Health: A Randomized Trial for Disability Insurance Beneficiaries." Charles Michalopoulos, David Wittenburg, Dina A.R. Israel, and Anne Warren. Medical Care, September 2012 (subscription required). Under current law, most Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries are not eligible for Medicare until 29 months after the Social Security Administration confirms the onset of their disability. During this waiting period, more than one in five beneficiaries lacks health insurance. This article investigates the effects of providing health care benefits on the health, employment, and other services of uninsured beneficiaries. Individuals with health care benefits used more health care, had fewer unmet medical needs, spent less out of pocket on health care, and reported improved health. In addition, they were more likely to look for work, but the supports did not affect work or SSDI benefits at this very early period.
"The Financial Repercussions of New Work-Limiting Health Conditions for Older Workers." Jodi Schimmel and David C. Stapleton. Inquiry, summer 2012. Using a nonexperimental analysis, this article examined earnings and income for older workers who later experience the onset of a medical condition that limits their ability to work. Income from unemployment insurance, workers' compensation, and retirement and disability benefits offset only a small amount of the earnings declines, resulting in decreased overall household income after onset of the work-limiting condition.
"Employment Experiences of Young Medicaid Buy-In Participants with Psychiatric Disabilities." Jody Schimmel, Su Liu, and Sarah Croake. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, January 2012 (subscription required). The Medicaid Buy-In program enables people with disabilities to buy into Medicaid when their earnings or assets would typically make them ineligible. Using buy-in employment data, this article assessed the differences in employment outcomes between young participants (ages 18 to 30) with psychiatric disabilities versus young participants with other disabilities and found the former achieve larger average increases in earnings around the time of enrollment in the program than those with other disabling conditions, though average earnings while employed are lower.
"Competitive Employment Outcomes of Vocational Rehabilitation." Frank H. Martin, Richard T. Walls, Martin Brodwin, Randall Parker, Frances Siu, and Edward Kurata. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, Spring 2012 (subscription required). This article examines occupational outcomes for state-federal vocational rehabilitation consumers whose cases were successfully closed in 2008 using the Standard Occupational Classification system. It investigates the top 50 job titles and top 5 occupations by disability categories after vocational rehabilitation. Median hourly wages for participants are reported and compared with those of the general labor force. The authors discuss findings and implications and offer suggestions to rehabilitation counselors about how to expand consumers' job and career options.
"Adult Employment Assistance Services for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects on Employment Outcomes." John D. Westbrook, Chad Nye, Carlton J. Fong, Judith T. Wan, Tara Cortopassi, and Frank H. Martin. Campbell Systematic Reviews, March 2012. This systematic review of the research on the effectiveness of adult employment assistance interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) found two quasi-experimental studies that met inclusion criteria. However, the review was not able to identify definitive interventions that predictably and positively supported the development of employment outcomes for individuals with ASD. Qualitative studies and other relevant research studies were also reviewed. While qualitative studies point to a number of promising issues for future research, they do not provide a definitive statement about what works.
"Evaluating Infrastructure Development in Complex Home Visiting Systems." Margaret Hargreaves, Russell Cole, Brandon Coffee-Borden, Diane Paulsell, and Kimberly Boller. American Journal of Evaluation, June 2013 (subscription required). This article outlines a mixed methods approach to systems change evaluation and offers a case study of how this approach has been used to evaluate the development of system infrastructure supporting the implementation, spread, and sustainability of evidence-based home visiting projects. The approach combined systems concepts (boundaries, relationships, perspectives, ecological levels, and dynamics) and qualitative methods (project site visits, telephone interviews, reviews of project documents, and logic models) with quantitative methods (a web-based partner survey to measure the projects' system properties and contextual dynamics) to assess how these system factors were associated with the projects' infrastructure development.
"Links Between Young Children's Behavior and Achievement: The Role of Social Class and Classroom Composition." Annie Georges, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Lizabeth M. Malone. American Behavioral Scientist, December 2011, published online ahead of print (subscription required). This article examines the association between attentive and aggressive behavior (at the child- and class-level) and individual child achievement. Children with low attention, alone or in combination with aggressive behavior, made fewer gains in test scores during kindergarten. Additionally, having more children in the classroom with low attention was linked with lower achievement gains, even for children who did not themselves demonstrate problem behaviors.
"Measuring Quality and Using It to Improve Practice and Policy in Early Childhood Development." Pia Rebello Britto, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, and Kimberly Boller. Early Childhood Matters, November 2011.This article in the Bernard van Leer Foundation's international journal proposes a framework for conceptualizing and measuring the quality of early childhood programs in global contexts and makes recommendations for how policymakers, practitioners, and researchers can work together to improve quality. This article is a précis of a Society for Research in Child Development social policy report and issue brief on these topics.
"Trajectories of the Home Learning Environment Across the First 5 Years: Associations with Children's Vocabulary and Literacy Skills at Prekindergarten." Eileen T. Rodriguez and Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda. Child Development, June 2011 (published online ahead of print). This article examined home learning environments in a sample of 1,852 low-income families and their children at ages 1, 2, 3, and 5 years. The study found enriched learning experiences as early as 15 months are important to children's vocabulary growth and provide a foundation for children's later school success.
"What Are Error Rates for Classifying Teacher and School Performance Using Value-Added Models?" Peter Z. Schochet and Hanley S. Chiang. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, April 2013 (subscription required). This article addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using formulas based on ordinary least squares and empirical Bayes estimators, error rates for comparing a teacher’s performance to the average are likely to be about 25 percent with three years of data and 35 percent with one year of data. Corresponding error rates for overall false positive and negative errors are 10 percent and 20 percent, respectively. The results suggest that policymakers must carefully consider likely system error rates when using value-added estimates to make high-stakes decisions regarding educators.
"Combination Classes and Educational Achievement." Jaime L. Thomas. Economics of Education Review, December 2012 (subscription required). This article examines the relationship between combination class membership in 1st grade and 1st-grade test scores, finding that 1st graders are not harmed by being in a combination class or by their schools offering combination classes. As long as other stakeholders—such as parents, teachers, and students in other grades—are not made worse off, these findings suggest that offering combination classes may be a viable cost-saving option for school administrators.
"Effectiveness of Four Supplemental Reading Comprehension Interventions." Susanne James-Burdumy, John Deke, Russell Gersten, Julieta Lugo-Gil, Rebecca Newman-Gonchar, Joseph Dimino, Kelly Haymond, and Albert Yung-Hsu Liu. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, October 2012 (subscription required). This article presents evidence from a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the effects of four supplemental reading comprehension curricula (Project CRISS, ReadAbout, Read for Real, and Reading for Knowledge). The impact analyses in the study's first year revealed a statistically significant negative impact of Reading for Knowledge on students' reading comprehension scores and no other significant impacts. The impact of ReadAbout was positive and significant in the study's second year among teachers with one year of experience using the intervention.
"Random Assignment Within Schools: Lessons Learned from the Teach For America Experiment." Steven Glazerman. Education Finance and Policy, April 2012 (subscription required). This article discusses the trade-offs associated with study designs that involve random assignment of students within schools and describes the experience from one such study of Teach For America (TFA). The article concludes that within-school random assignment studies such as the TFA evaluation are challenging but may also be feasible and generate useful evidence.
"Examining Charter Student Achievement Effects Across Seven States." Ron Zimmer, Brian Gill, Kevin Booker, Stéphane Lavertu, and John Wittle. Economics of Education Review, April 2012 (subscription required). Since their inception, charter schools have been a lightning rod for controversy, with much of the debate revolving around their effectiveness in improving student achievement. Previous research has shown mixed results for student achievement; this could be the consequence of different policy environments or varying methodological approaches with differing assumptions across studies. In our analysis, we discuss these approaches and their assumptions and estimate charter school achievement effects using a consistent methodology across seven locations.
"The Effectiveness of Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing: A Cluster Randomized Trial." Susanne James-Burdumy, Brian Goesling, John Deke, and Eric Einspruch. Journal of Adolescent Health, October 2011 (subscription required). This article presents findings from the largest experimental evaluation to date of school-based mandatory-random student drug testing (MRSDT) and its effectiveness in reducing substance use among high school students. The study found that students who were subject to MRSDT reported less substance use in the past 30 days than comparable students in schools without MRSDT.
"The Dynamics of Women Disconnected from Employment and Welfare." Quinn Moore, Robert G. Wood, and Anu Rangarajan. Social Service Review, March 2012. This study examines the circumstances of women disconnected from employment and welfare using a sample of New Jersey TANF recipients followed for five years. It uses discrete-time hazard models to analyze transitions into and out of disconnectedness. The results indicate that having a more extensive work history and greater human capital lower the risk of becoming disconnected. Conversely, individuals relying on unemployment insurance benefits are at high risk of becoming disconnected when their benefits end. In addition, receipt of sanctions for noncompliance with TANF’s work requirements are found to triple the risk of becoming disconnected. Finally, transitions into disconnectedness increase sharply with increases in the unemployment rate.
"The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents." Robert G. Wood, Sheena McConnell, Quinn Moore, Andrew Clarkwest, and JoAnn Hsueh. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, February 2012 (subscription required). This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Results varied across sites, with one site having a pattern of positive effects (but no effect on marriage) and another having numerous negative effects. However, when impacts are averaged across all sites, findings indicate that the program had no overall effects on couples' relationship quality or the likelihood that they remained together or got married.
"Meeting Meaningful Use Criteria and Managing Patient Populations: A National Survey of Practicing Physicians." Catherine M. DesRoches, Anne-Marie Audet, Michale Painter, and Karen Donelan. Annals of Internal Medicine, June 2013 (subscription required). More than 40 percent of the nation’s physicians have access to a basic electronic health record (EHR) system; however, implementation of advanced functions for patient management and care coordination is not widespread, according to a study led by Mathematica and the Mongan Institute for Health Policy at Massachusetts General Hospital. Furthermore, when these tools are available, physicians report they are complicated and difficult to use. Many EHR functions, such as electronic data exchange, will be required for physicians to meet the meaningful use criteria of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) for EHRs. CMS established these criteria to ensure that physicians use EHRs to improve patient care; physicians participating in the meaningful use program receive financial incentives when they meet the criteria.
"Paying the Doctor: Evidence-Based Decisions at the Point-of-Care and the Role of Fee-for-Service Incentives." Eugene C. Rich, Timothy K. Lake, Christal Stone Valenzano, and Myles M. Maxfield. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, May 2013. This article dvelops a framework for understanding how financial and nonfinancial incentives can complicate point-of-care decision making by physicians, leading to the over- or under-use of health care services. The analysis highlights contributing factors that promote and impede evidence-based decision making, using examples from the “Choosing Wisely” program. The authors discuss how the existing fee-for-service payment system can contribute to the problems of over- and under-testing, diagnosis, and treatment.
"Paying More Wisely: Effects of Payment Reforms on Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making." Timothy K. Lake, Eugene C. Rich, Christal Stone Valenzano, and Myles M. Maxfield. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, May 2013. This article reviews the recent research, policy, and conceptual literature on the effects of payment policy reforms on evidence-based clinical decision making by physicians at the point of care. Payment reforms include recalibration of existing fee structures in fee-for-service, pay-for-quality, episode-based bundled payments and global payments. The authors review the advantages and disadvantages of these reforms in terms of their effects on physicians’ and patients’ use of evidence in clinical decisions related to the diagnosis, testing, treatment, and management of disease. They conclude with a recommended pathway for improving payment incentives to better support evidence-based decision making.
"Perspectives of Physicians and Nurse Practitioners on Primary Care Practice." Karen Donelan, Catherine M. DesRoches, Robert S. Dittus, and Peter Buerhaus. The New England Journal of Medicine, May 2013 (subscription required). A study finds that, although primary care physicians and nurse practitioners mostly agree that nurse practitioners should be able to practice to the full extent of their education and training, they strongly disagree about proposed changes to the scope of nurse practitioners' responsibilities. The survey—led by investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital, the Institute for Medicine and Public Health at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and Mathematica—revealed points of disagreement on appropriate leadership roles for nurse practitioners, reimbursement levels, and overall quality of services.
"National and State Trends in Enrollment and Spending for Dual Eligibles Under Age 65 in Medicaid Managed Care." Jenna Libersky, Allison Hedley Dodd, and Shinu Verghese. Disability and Health Journal, April 2013 (subscription required). This article uses 2005 and 2008 Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data to present spending and enrollment trends for adults with disabilities who are dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. Nationwide, the proportion of adult duals in managed care increased from 2005 to 2008, with the expansion of prepaid health plans (PHPs), particularly behavioral health PHPs, driving the increase. Although overall use of managed care has increased, there has been little expansion in the use of comprehensive managed care among adult dual eligible beneficiaries, particularly when compared with their Medicaid-only disabled adult peers. This imbalance suggests room to remove barriers preventing dually eligible adults, from enrolling in comprehensive, integrated managed care.
"Assessing the Usability of MAX 2008 Encounter Data for Comprehensive Managed Care." Vivian L.H. Byrd and Allison Hedley Dodd. Medicare & Medicaid Research Review, March 2013. This article summarizes the availability, completeness, quality, and usability of the encounter data in the MAX file, derived from CMS’s Medicaid Statistical Information System, for enrollees in comprehensive managed care plans. It also gives specific information by state. Most states that have comprehensive managed care plans reported data to the other services, inpatient, and prescription drug files in 2008. Of these data, the majority are usable.
"Primum Non Nocere: Reconciling Patient-Centered Outcomes with Evidence-Based Care." Eugene C. Rich. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, March 2013. This “Methods to Policy” piece discusses opportunities and challenges in reconciling increased demands for evidence to be “patient-centered” with the realities of highly diverse patient circumstances, preferences, and clinical situations.
"Systems Model of Physician Professionalism in Practice." Barrett T. Kitch, Catherine DesRoches, Cara Lesser, Amy Cunningham, and Eric G. Campbell. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, February 2013. This article found that characteristics of organizations such as hospitals, group practices, and physician organizations can help foster a consistent systems model of physician professionalism.
"Mental Health Communications Skills Training for Medical Assistants in Pediatric Primary Care." Jonathan D. Brown, Lawrence S. Wissow, Benjamin L. Cook, Shaina Longway, Emily Caffery, and Chris Pefaure. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, January 2013. This article provides findings from a training pilot to enhance the ability of medical assistants (MAs) to have therapeutic encounters with Latino families who have mental health concerns in pediatric primary care. The study found that MAs were able to master most of the skills taught during the training, which improved their ability to have patient-centered encounters with families during standardized patient visits. Parents interviewed one and six months following the training were more than twice as willing as parents interviewed one month before the training to discuss mental health concerns with MAs, and they had better perceptions of their interactions with MAs.
"Parents' Preferences for Enhanced Access to the Pediatric Medical Home: A Qualitative Study." Joseph S. Zickafoose, Lisa R. DeCamp, Dana J. Sambuco, and Lisa A. Prosser. The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, January/March 2013 (subscription required). In this study 20 parents were interviewed about experiences accessing primary care for their children, priorities for enhanced access, and willingness to make trade-offs. Parents had strong preferences for certain services, such as same-day sick care appointments, and were willing to make trade-offs for high-priority services. The authors concluded that primary care practices and medical home programs should educate families about trade-offs needed to implement new services and engage families in setting priorities for medical home implementation.
"How to Provide and Pay for Long-Term Care of an Aging Population is an International Concern." Marsha Gold. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, January 2013. As populations age, most industrialized nations are seeking to review their long-term care programs and better allocate better limited public resources to meet expanding needs. This commentary piece examines critical questions that define the way individual nations provide for the long-term care needs of their aging populations.
"The Effects of Mental Health Parity on Spending and Utilization for Bipolar, Major Depression, and Adjustment Disorders." Alisa B. Busch, Frank Yoon, Colleen L. Barry, Vanessa Azzone, Sharon-Lise T. Normand, Howard H. Goldman, and Haiden A. Huskamp. The American Journal of Psychiatry, February 2013 (subscription required). This study counters concerns that benefit expansion under parity would increase spending. The study finds that mental health parity provisions implemented in the Federal Employees Health Benefits program resulted in reductions in total out-of-pocket spending for patients with more-severe behavioral health conditions, while the level of services they received remained largely unchanged. The study also found, however, that individuals with less-severe but acute mental health conditions received fewer services, suggesting that health plans were selectively managing benefits.
"Enhancing the Primary Care Team to Provide Redesigned Care: The Roles of Practice Facilitators and Care Managers." Erin Fries Taylor, Rachel M. Machta, David S. Meyers, Janice Genevro, and Deborah N. Peikes. Annals of Family Medicine, January/February 2013 (subscription required). This article co-authored with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, examines the distinct and complementary roles practice facilitators and care managers play in redesigning and improving primary care delivery. Practice facilitators coordinate practice quality improvement and redesign efforts, helping build capacity for activities that improve quality and safety and the implementation of evidence-based practices. Care managers coordinate patient care and help patients navigate the system, improving access and communicating across the care team.
"Matching Study Designs to Disability-Related Comparative Effectiveness Research Questions." Jeffrey Ballou, Eugene Rich, and Matthew Kehn. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, January 2013. This article presents methodological and design issues for researchers to consider when addressing disability-related comparative effectiveness research questions.
"Are Nurses Ready for Health Care Reform? A Decade of Survey Research." Peter I. Buerhaus, Catherine DesRoches, Sandra Applebaum, Robert Hess, Linda D. Norman, and Karen Donelan. Nursing Economics, December 2012. Using biennial national surveys, this article examines registered nurses' views of health policy, including their expectations of health reform. The authors found that strong clinical leadership, participation in developing an achievable vision of the future, and support for risks and innovation to improve the quality and efficiency of care delivery will enable nursing to thrive. Increasing nursing leaders' education and preparation, particularly that of unit-level managers, will also be vital for nursing to prosper.
"Teaching Health Centers and the Path to Graduate Medical Education Reform." Eugene C. Rich. Academic Medicine, December 2012. This commentary discusses the lessons and opportunities presented through the Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education program and suggests that advocates of this should be cautious in applying lessons learned to broader graduate medical education policy reform.
"Past as Prologue: How Comparative Effectiveness Research Became Patient-Centered Outcomes Research." Eugene C. Rich. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, November 2012. This "methods to policy" piece outlines the evolution of comparative effectiveness research to patient-centered outcomes research in U.S. policy circles. It also addresses the real-world implications of this work for health care researchers, patients, providers, and other stakeholders.
"Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation." Lorenzo Moreno, Ernesto Treviño, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Susana Mendive, Joaquín Reyes, Felipe Godoy, Francisca Del Río, Catherine Snow, Diana Leyva, Clara Barata, MaryCatherine Arbour, and Andrea Rolla. Evaluation Review, April 2011. Un Buen Comienzo, an ongoing early childhood program in Chile, was directly affected by the 2010 earthquake in that country. This article discusses the factors the team considered for deciding whether to put on hold or continue implementation and data collection for this experimental study.
"Quality of Early Childhood Development Programs in Global Contexts: Rationale for Investment, Conceptual Framework and Implications for Equity." Social Policy Report. Pia Rebello Britto, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, and Kimberly Boller. Ann Arbor, MI: Society for Research in Child Development, Sharing Child and Youth Development Knowledge, April 2011. Early childhood development programs—which often involve the health, education, child welfare, and other sectors—are of great interest to policymakers, service providers, and families around the globe. This paper proposes that equity in access and quality are critical to effect sustainable and meaningful change in these programs in developing countries. The paper conceptualizes quality across settings and systems and identifies implications for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers on how they can work together to measure, improve, and sustain quality.
"Mortality Risk and Human Capital Investment: The Impact of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa." Jane G. Fortson. The Review of Economics and Statistics, February 2011. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys for 15 sub-Saharan African countries, this article estimates the relationship between regional HIV prevalence and the change in individual human capital investment over time. Areas with higher levels of HIV experienced relatively larger declines in schooling.
"Low Skilled Immigration and Work-Fertility Tradeoffs Among High Skilled US Natives." Delia Furtado and Heinrich Hock. American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, May 2010. This article examines the impact of low skilled immigration on the childbearing and labor supply decisions of high-education female natives of the United States. The authors find that an influx of low skilled immigrants to a city attenuates the negative relationship between female labor force participation (LFP) and fertility, leading to an increase in the proportion of women that both work and have a young child in the home. The authors argue that the smaller LFP-fertility tradeoff attributable to immigrant workers arises due to reductions in cost of childrearing. Whereas most immigration research focuses on the reduced employment prospects of natives, this paper considers the potential benefits of immigration to high skilled native women.
"On the Use of Latent Variable Models to Detect Differences in the Interpretation of Vague Quantifiers." Jamie Griffin. Public Opinion Quarterly, February 2013 (subscription required). This study explores whether latent variable models may be used to detect individual variability in the interpretation of vague quantifiers of behavioral frequency. Using data from an experiment embedded in the 2006 National Survey of Student Engagement, the current study finds that differential interpretation may be best represented as variability between latent interpretation classes. These analyses illustrate how a researcher might use certain latent variable models to extract a methodological artifact—differential interpretation—from measurement models intended to be purely substantive.
"Effects of E-Mailed Versus Mailed Invitations and Incentives on Response Rates, Data Quality, and Costs in a Web Survey of University Faculty." Jennifer Dykema, John Stevenson, Lisa Klein, Yujin Kim, and Brendan Day. Social Science Computer Review, November 2012 (subscription required). This study used random assignment to assess the effects of invitation mode on response rates, costs, and demographic representativeness. Participants were sent a mailed invitation letter and a $2 cash incentive; a mailed invitation letter only; or an e-mailed invitation. Nonresponding faculty received up to two reminders to participate, by e-mail. Response rates were higher for the groups invited using a postal letter, but the inclusion of $2 did not significantly increase the response rates.
"Why We Fight: Understanding Military Participation Over the Life Cycle." David R. Mann. Journal of Human Capital, winter 2012 (subscription required). This article specifies a dynamic career decision model that includes military service options to understand how human capital, compensation, the business cycle, and combat risk affect the military labor supply. Using data on males from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, experimental results show that the military wage elasticity of military participation is 3 percent, entering the workforce during an adverse business cycle state increases military participation by 3 percent, and combat death risk strongly affects military participation.
"Can Administrative Records Be Used to Reduce Nonresponse Bias?" John L. Czajka. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, January 2013 (subscription required). Administrative records can help address potential bias from survey nonresponse. This article cautions that administrative records may not cover the entire population of interest, may use a different unit of observation, may have wide variation in data quality across items or by agency, and may present timeliness issues.
"Beliefs and Endogenous Cognitive Levels: An Experimental Study." Marina Agranov, Elizabeth Potamites, Andrew Schotter, and Chloe Tergiman. Games and Economic Behavior, July 2012 (subscription required). This article uses a laboratory setting to manipulate subjects' beliefs about the cognitive levels of the players against whom they are playing. The study found a subject's true cognitive level might be different from the one exhibited in a game.
"Heterogeneous Ambiguity Attitudes: A Field Experiment Among Small-Scale Stock Investors in China." Elizabeth Potamites and Bei Zhang. Review of Economic Design, June 2012 (subscription required). Authors of this article conducted quasi-field experiments in Chinese brokerage houses to investigate how investors react to ambiguity relative to quantifiable risks and the degree of heterogeneity in these reactions. The study, which found significant heterogeneity in ambiguity attitudes, discusses potential contributing demographic or emotional factors. It also reviews the correlation between ambiguity attitudes and risk attitudes.
"Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status Among United States Schoolchildren." Allison Hedley Dodd, Ronette Briefel, Charlotte Cabili, Ander Wilson, and Mary Kay Crepinsek. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, May 2013 (subscription required). This paper used data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study to identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and other beverages among United States schoolchildren. The analysis found that beverage consumption patterns did not substantially differ across weight status groups, but they differed by race/ethnicity in the home. Non-Hispanic black elementary schoolchildren consumed sugar-sweetened beverages other than soda more often and unflavored, low-fat milk less often at home than non-Hispanic white schoolchildren.
"Reducing Calories and Added Sugars by Improving Children's Beverage Choices." Ronette R. Briefel, Ander Wilson, Charlotte Cabili, and Allison Hedley Dodd. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, February 2013 (subscription required). This study estimated the mean calories from added sugars saved by switching sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and sport drinks) and flavored milks consumed to unflavored low-fat milk (less than 1 percent fat) at meals and water between meals. These changes, which were simulated to demonstrate the potential effects of improving school nutrition policies, translated to a mean of 205 calories or a 10 percent savings in energy intake across all students (8 percent among children in elementary school and 11 percent in middle and high schools).
"Publishing Nutrition Research: A Review of Multivariate Techniques Part 2: Analysis of Variance." Jeffrey E. Harris, Patricia M. Sheean, Philip M. Gleason, Barbara Bruemmer, and Carol Boushey. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, January 2012 (subscription required).This article is the eighth in a series exploring the importance of research design, statistical analysis, and epidemiology in nutrition and dietetics research. It is the second article in that series focused on multivariate statistical analytical techniques. This review examines the statistical technique of analysis of variance (ANOVA), from its simplest form to multivariate applications. It addresses all these applications and includes hypothetical and real examples from the field of dietetics.